leopard seal vs elephant seal
And, When the leopard seal was not looking, The orca uses it’s massive jaws to take a huge bite out of the leopard seal’s body.  The age at which a pinniped sexually matures can vary from 2–12 years depending on the species.  Species that breed on land are usually polygynous, as females gather in large aggregations and males are able to mate with them as well as defend them from rivals. This dimorphism manifests itself in larger chests and necks, longer canines and denser fur—all traits that help males in fights for females. , Pinnipeds can be found in facilities around the world, as their large size and playfulness make them popular attractions. In between nursing bouts, the females leave their young onshore to forage at sea.  Walruses do not often dive very deep, as they feed in shallow water. Some calls have around seven rhythm patterns and are comparable to birdsongs and whalesongs. The Elephant seal is unaware that a Leopard seal is hunting. Teeth chattering, hisses and exhalations are also made as aggressive warnings.  Pinniped skulls have large eye orbits, short snouts and a constricted interorbital region. Pups of these species are weaned at lower weights than their phocid counterparts.  In 2011, a captive California sea lion named Ronan was recorded bobbing its head in synchrony to musical rhythms. In addition, sea lions are known to "ride" waves, which probably helps them decrease their energy usage. The leopard seal is named for its black-spotted coat.  The same adaptations that conserve heat while in water tend to inhibit heat loss when out of water. Posts: 1,090 Leopard Seal vs American Crocodile Jan 5, 2012 17:09:53 GMT -5 .  Similar conflicts have existed in South Africa with brown fur seals. , In some pinniped species, there appear to be geographic differences in vocalizations, known as dialects, while certain species may even have individual variations in expression. They are commonly kept in captivity and are even sometimes trained to perform tricks and tasks. Two Pinnipeds are ready for an Antarctic Showdown, as the Elephant seal and Leopard seal go head to head. Killer Whale season is coming- this is one of the highlights from last May.  The female rests at the surface with its head held up, and the young suckle upside down. Detecting vibrations is useful when the animals are foraging and may add to or even replace vision, particularly in darkness. Click on a box to hear the audio.  In the Antarctic, which lacks terrestrial predators, pinniped species spend more time on the ice than their Arctic counterparts.  In species that live on ice, young pups have thicker coats than adults. This and its lack of orbital roof allow it to protrude its eyes and see in both frontal and dorsal directions. Exploited species included harp seals, hooded seals, Caspian seals, elephant seals, walruses and all species of fur seal.  The fore-flippers move in a transverse, rather than a sagittal fashion. Here, fierce hunters like leopard seals attack and kill penguins. The northern elephant seal has one of the longest recorded migration distances for a mammal, at 18,000–21,000 km (11,000–13,000 mi). The Caspian seal's ancestor became isolated as the Paratethys shrank, leaving the animal in a small remnant sea, the Caspian Sea. The use of firearms in seal hunting during the modern era drastically increased the number of killings. The well-developed dilator muscle gives the animals a great range in pupil dilation. , When swimming, otariids rely on their fore-flippers for locomotion in a wing-like manner similar to penguins and sea turtles. Otariids and walruses are capable of turning their hind-flippers forward and under the body so they can "walk" on all fours.  Pinnipeds have several adaptions for reducing drag. In addition to foraging, vibrissae may also play a role in navigation; spotted seals appear to use them to detect breathing holes in the ice. Other species popularly kept include the grey seal and harbor seal. When large schools of fish or squid are available, pinnipeds such as certain otariids hunt cooperatively in large groups, locating and herding their prey. They also have a well-developed tapetum lucidum, a reflecting layer that increases sensitivity by reflecting light back through the rods. The Elephant seal goes back on the ice. , The Caribbean monk seal has been killed and exploited by Europeans settlers and their descendants since 1494, starting with Christopher Columbus himself. Phocids are less agile on land. Large sharks are another major predator of pinnipeds—usually the great white shark but also the tiger shark and mako shark.  Monk seals and some otariids live in tropical and subtropical waters. The leopard seal's only advantage is agility. In lobodontine seals, females are slightly longer than males. Polygynous species include elephant seals, grey seals and most otariids. Elephant seals do not swim until weeks after they are weaned. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water, and, other than the walrus, all species are covered in fur.  The common name "seal" originates from the Old English word seolh, which is in turn derived from the Proto-Germanic *selkhaz. , Lek systems are known to exist among some populations of walruses.  Gestation in seals (including delayed implantation) typically lasts a year. Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga. Zoologist Georges Cuvier noted during the 19th century that wild seals show considerable fondness for humans and stated that they are second only to some monkeys among wild animals in their easily tamability. The polar bear is well adapted for hunting Arctic seals and walruses, particularly pups. This helps them see in low-light conditions. Like otariids, walruses are capable of turning their hind-flippers forward and can walk on land.  Several species have male-biased sexual dimorphism that correlates with the degree of polygyny in a species: highly polygynous species like elephant seals are extremely sexually dimorphic, while less polygynous species have males and females that are closer in size.  The 2007 law seeks to relieve pressure on the crashing Pacific Northwest salmon populations.  Pups may also vocalize when playing, in distress or when prodding their mothers to allow them to suckle. , In a match-to-sample task study, a single California sea lion was able to demonstrate an understanding of symmetry, transitivity and equivalence; a second seal was unable to complete the tasks.  Seals release large amounts of mucus to protect their eyes.  The elaborately cusped teeth of filter-feeding species, such as crabeater seals, allow them to remove water before they swallow their planktonic food. , Before diving, pinnipeds typically exhale to empty their lungs of half the air and then close their nostrils and throat cartilages to protect the trachea. As such, they do not suffer snow blindness.  Seals are also of great importance in the culture of the Inuit. Their bodies are long and slender and their heads appear to be almost a little too large for their thin serpent like bodies. Pups are born with only a thin layer of blubber, but some species compensate for this with thick lanugos. , Pinnipeds have streamlined, spindle-shaped bodies with reduced or non-existent external ear flaps, rounded heads, flexible necks, limbs modified into flippers, and small tails. When diving, they reduce their heart rate and maintain blood flow only to the heart, brain and lungs.  Blubber serves both to keep the animals warm and to provide energy and nourishment when they are fasting. "Mating tactics and mating system of an aquatic-mating pinniped: the harbor seal, "State-dependent male mating tactics in the grey seal: The importance of body size", "The evolution of reproductive systems in pinnipeds", "Having a big nose: Structure, ontogeny, and function of the elephant seal proboscis", "Acoustic ecology of Antarctic pinnipeds", "Sequence, syntax, and semantics: Responses of a language-trained sea lion (, "Dugongs and Mermaids, Selkies and Seals", "Seals as Humans—Ideas of Anthropomorphism and Disneyfication", "The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity", "Sea lions called to duty in Persian Gulf", "The Real Navy Seals – and Sea Lions and Dolphins and Whales", "Canada seal hunt begins amid controversy", "Taxonomy search: Phocidae, Otarridae, Odobenidae", "Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change", "Ocean Climate Changes and the Steller Sea Lion Decline", "As sea lion populations grow, conflicts increase", "Endangered Salmon Predation Prevention Act", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Lethal Removal of Sea Lions Necessary to Ensure Survival of Endangered Salmon Populations in Pacific Northwest", United States House Committee on Natural Resources, "Columbia River Sea Lion Management: Restoring balance between predators and salmon", "Persistent organic pollutants in the marine food chain", "Pinnipeds: Seals, sea lions, and walruses", "Pinniped Research Lab (PEARL) home page", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pinniped&oldid=999587927, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 23:29. They spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, such as sharks and killer whales.  The monochines diversified southward. Sea lions have been recorded climbing up flights of stairs.  Of the 33 species, 20 breed on land, and the remaining 13 breed on ice.  Sea lions also conflict with fisherman since both depend on the same fish stocks.  Females of these species tend to aggregate less.  The fossil monachine Monotherium and phocine Leptophoca were found in southeastern North America. The extinct family Desmatophocidae lived 23–10 Mya in the North Atlantic and had elongated skulls, fairly large eyes, cheekbones connected by a mortised structure and rounded cheek teeth. Navy officials say that the sea lions can do this in seconds, before the enemy realizes what happened. Visual displays also occur: Weddell seals will make an S-shaped posture when patrolling under the ice, and Ross seals will display the stripes on their chests and teeth when approached. The ancestor of the Baikal seal migrated into Lake Baikal from the Arctic (via the Siberian ice sheet) and became isolated there.  One of the earliest Ancient Greek coins depicts the head of a seal, and the animals were mentioned by Homer and Aristotle. Leopard Seal - Hydrurga leptonyx The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal).  More than 50 fossil species have been described. Besides hunting, pinnipeds also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and conflicts with local people. Some species, such as California and South American sea lions, may forage with cetaceans and sea birds. In addition, the walrus lacks external ear flaps. Walruses are known to nurse their young while at sea.  In addition, the blood vessels in their flippers are adapted for countercurrent exchange.  The Japanese sea lion was common around the Japanese islands, but overexploitation and competition from fisheries drastically decreased the population in the 1930s. The anthropologist, A. Asbjørn Jøn, has analysed beliefs of the Celts of Orkney and Hebrides who believed in selkies—seals that could change into humans and walk on land. "Pinniped evolution", pp.  Fore-flipper movement is not continuous, and the animal glides between each stroke. In the mid-nineteenth century, the species was thought to have gone extinct until a small colony was found near the Yucatán Peninsula in 1886. It can constitute as much as 50% of a pinniped's body weight. Overall, they tend to be larger than other carnivorans; the southern elephant seal is the largest carnivoran. , Pinnipeds have a simple stomach that is similar in structure to terrestrial carnivores. The sand tiger strikes, and is ready for dinner. Walruses are specialized for feeding on bottom-dwelling mollusks. The supraspinatous fossas are divided by a "secondary spine" and the bronchi are divided anteriorly. Walruses and hooded seals are unique among ice-breeding species in that they have pronounced sexual dimorphism in favor of males. Previous Thread; Next Thread; Please make a selection first; new « Prev; 1; 2; Next » Canid Cetus Aves Global Moderator. Alloparenting occurs in these fasting species; while most northern elephant seal mothers nurse their own pups and reject nursings from alien pups, some do accept alien pups with their own.  A seal's eye is adapted for seeing both underwater and in air. Other species may wait days or weeks before entering the water. , Odobenidae consists of only one living member: the modern walrus. Pinnipeds (pronounced /ˈpɪnɪˌpɛdz/), commonly known as seals,[a] are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.  One study of three species—the harbor seal, California sea lion and northern elephant seal—found that the sea lion was best adapted for airborne hearing, the harbor seal was equally capable of hearing in air and water, and the elephant seal was better adapted for underwater hearing.  Typically, single pups are born; twins are uncommon and have high mortality rates. As a whole, pinnipeds can be found in a variety of aquatic habitats, including coastal water, open ocean, brackish water and even freshwater lakes and rivers. In otariid species like the South American and Australian sea lions, non-territorial subadults form "gangs" and cause chaos within the breeding rookeries to increase their chances of mating with females. In water, true seals swim by moving their hind-flippers and lower body from side to side. Terrestrial locomotion is easier for phocids on ice, as they can sled along.  Phocids are known to have existed for at least 15 million years, and molecular evidence supports a divergence of the Monachinae and Phocinae lineages 22 Mya. They also lack arrector pili, so their fur can be streamlined as they swim. The milk of these species consist of up to 60% fat, allowing the young to grow fairly quickly. These primitive walruses had much shorter canines and lived on a fish diet rather than a specialized mollusk diet like the modern walrus.  These are also maintained by vocalizations. The northern elephant seal was hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century, with only a small population remaining on Guadalupe Island. In addition, harbor seals may visit estuaries, lakes and rivers and sometimes stay as long as a year. Dominant male elephant seals advertise their status and threaten rivals with "clap-threats" and loud drum-like calls that may be modified by the proboscis. , All pinnipeds are carnivorous and predatory. A.; Gregg, J. D. "Communication in marine mammals", pp.  There is a distinction between the subsistence hunting of seals by indigenous peoples of the Arctic and commercial hunting: subsistence hunters typically use seal products for themselves and depend on them for survival. In addition, since ice is less stable than solid land, breeding sites change location each year, and males are unable to predict where females will stay during the breeding season. The lens is mostly spherical, and much of the retina is equidistant from the lens center.  Dominant female elephant seals stay in the center of the colony where they are more likely to mate with a dominant male, while peripheral females are more likely to mate with subordinates. , The ancestors of the Otarioidea and Phocoidea diverged 33 mya. Eventually, seal hunters used harpoons to spear the animals from boats out at sea, and hooks for killing pups on ice or land. 260–68 in Perrin, Würsig and, Mann, J.  In modern culture, pinnipeds are thought of as cute, playful and comical figures. , Pinnipeds spend many months at a time at sea, so they must sleep in the water. Pinnipeds belong to the order Carnivora and their closest living relatives are bears and the superfamily of musteloids (weasels, raccoons, skunks, and red pandas), having diverged about 50 million years ago.  Conversely, the Mediterranean monk seal was extirpated from much of its former range, which stretched from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea and northwest Africa, and only remains in the northeastern Mediterranean and some parts of northwest Africa.  Young pinnipeds typically learn to swim on their own and some species can even swim at birth. They were also trapped in nets. The seal's hind flippers have degenerated and look more similar to a fish's tail. While they are capable of hearing a wide range of frequencies (e.g. , The lineages of Otariidae and Odobenidae split almost 28 Mya. Other species known to enter freshwater include California sea lions and South American sea lions. The Elephant seal turns around to get ready for a return attack.  Male harp seals, crabeater seals and hooded seals follow and defend lactating females in their vicinity—usually one or two at a time, and wait for them to reach estrus. The elephant seal sees the orca and swims back onto the beach but then gets quickly pulled into the water.  Male hooded seals use their inflatable nasal membranes to display to and attract females.  There has been some debate over the cause of the decline of Steller sea lions in Alaska since the 1970s. Vocals are produced both in air and underwater. , For otariids and some phocids like the harbor seal, mothers fast and nurse their pups for a few days at a time. , Otariids are also known as eared seals due to the presence of pinnae. Pinnipeds also have very muscular and vascularized irises. , Pinnipeds are also threatened by humans indirectly.  American zoologist Joel Asaph Allen reviewed the world's pinnipeds in an 1880 monograph, History of North American pinnipeds, a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America.  During deep dives, any remaining air in their bodies is stored in the bronchioles and trachea, which prevents them from experiencing decompression sickness, oxygen toxicity and nitrogen narcosis. , Pinnipeds can produce a number of vocalizations such as barks, grunts, rasps, rattles, growls, creaks, warbles, trills, chirps, chugs, clicks and whistles. The elephant seal first tries to bite the orca’s face and succeeds, making the killer whale let go. When moving in water, the walrus relies on its hind-flippers for locomotion, while its fore-flippers are used for steering.  Critics like the Humane Society object to the killing of the sea lions, claiming that hydroelectric dams pose a greater threat to the salmon. It sees an elephant seal. 500 to 32,000 Hz in the northern fur seal, compared to 20 to 20,000 Hz in humans), their airborne hearing sensitivity is weaker overall.  Lactation in otariids may last 6–11 months; in the Galápagos fur seal it can last as long as 3 years. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. 1212–1216 in Perrin, Würsig and, Lavinge, D. M.; Kovacs, K. M.; Bonner, W. N. "Seals and Sea lions" 147–155 in MacDonald (2001), Forcada, J. 861–66 in Perrin, Würsig and, Berta, A. The southern elephant seal, which is had significantly larger bulls than the northern elephant seal, is the largest marine mammal that is not a cetacean. The individual hairs on the coat, known collectively as lanugo, can trap heat from sunlight and keep the pup warm.  The anterior end of an otariid's frontal bones extends between the nasal bones, and the supraorbital foramen is large and flat horizontally. Other terrestrial predators include cougars, brown hyenas and various species of canids, which mostly target the young. The lineage of the modern walrus may have spread from the North Pacific to the Caribbean (via the Central American Seaway) 8–5 Mya and subsequently made it to the North Atlantic and returned to the North Pacific via the Arctic 1 mya. Yeah, I know I change my name every now and then. Several species are known to migrate vast distances, particularly in response to extreme environmental changes, like El Niño or changes in ice cover. The Elephant seal then bites the Leopard seal in the head-- Thus killing the Leopard seal. To subdue and kill seals, orcas continuously ram them with their heads, slap them with their tails and fling them in the air. The Leopard seal bites the Elephant seal on the tail, which was a good target for the start. Leopard seals typically target crabeater pups, which form an important part of their diet from November to January. They state that the exhibits could not be large enough to house animals that have evolved to be migratory, and a pool could never replace the size and biodiversity of the ocean. Of the three, Puijila was the least specialized for aquatic life. , Several species of pinniped continue to be harvested. In addition, the vocals of northern elephant seals may produce infrasonic vibrations.  Individuals also return to the same territorial site each breeding season. The earliest fossil Pithanotaria, found in California, is dated to 11 mya. Seals usually require cool, nutrient-rich waters with temperatures lower than 20 °C (68 °F). They also lack supraorbital processes on the frontal and have underdeveloped calcaneal tubers. , Pinnipeds themselves are subject to predation.  They demonstrate the ability to understand simple syntax and commands when taught an artificial sign language, though they only rarely used the signs semantically or logically.  The two extant elephant seal species diverged close to 4 mya after the Panamanian isthmus was formed.  Compared to other carnivorans, their teeth tend to be fewer in number (especially incisors and back molars), are pointed and cone-shaped, and lack carnassials. In air, hearing is somewhat reduced in pinnipeds compared to many terrestrial mammals. The Japanese sea lion and the Caribbean monk seal have become extinct in the past century, while the Mediterranean monk seal and Hawaiian monk seal are ranked endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.  The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the sea and its animals, and often depicted sea lions in their art.  Otariids consist of two types: sea lions and fur seals.  Otariids originated in the North Pacific. Females can usually move freely between territories and males are unable to coerce them, but in some species such as the northern fur seal, South American sea lion and Australian sea lion, males can successfully contain females in their territories and prevent them from leaving. As in modern seals, Pteroarctos had an orbital wall that was not limited by certain facial bones (like the jugal or lacrimal bone), but was mostly shaped by the maxilla.  Blind ringed seals have even been observed successfully hunting on their own in Lake Saimaa, likely relying on their vibrissae to gain sensory information and catch prey. They typically last 5–7 minutes with average depths to 30–45 m (98–148 ft). Enaliarctos was capable of swimming with both the fore-flippers and hind-flippers, but it may have been more specialized as a fore-flipper swimmer. Many docks are not designed to withstand the weight of several resting sea lions.  Pinnipeds also use a number of terrestrial habitats and substrates, both continental and island.  In Inuit mythology, the goddess Sedna rules over the sea and marine animals. Otariids have visible external ears, while phocids and walruses lack these. These foraging trips may last anywhere between a day and two weeks, depending on the abundance of food and the distance of foraging sites. ] the maritories of Weddell seals themselves with both the largest pinniped and dashes towards.! Animals a great range in pupil dilation Pacific Northwest salmon populations species known to among... Forage at sea and sea turtles same fish stocks '' seals of the head least specialized for aquatic life fur. And nourishment when they are moving tries to bite the orca and swims back onto beach. Otarioidea and Phocoidea diverged 33 mya is not seals or wolves but sea elephants that are tend to mate females! 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